Sci-Tech

The new world of agriculture and our country

The rapid increase in the world’s population has forced agricultural scientists to think of farming methods that can be used not only to increase productivity but also to convert agricultural land for other purposes. At present, the world’s population has exceeded seven billion people. To meet the nutritional needs of this population, 40% of the earth’s surface is set aside for orchards, fields, orchards and livestock. Have done

If we continue to use land in this way to obtain goods, then in the future, finding a place for human habitation would be tantamount to bringing in a gambling lion. According to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the world’s population will reach 9.6 billion by 2050. On the other hand, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, we need to increase food production by 70% to avoid future food shortages. Have to take But land is needed to increase commodity production, and we have used as much land as possible, excluding mountain peaks, glaciers and deserts.

Agronomists say that if today’s man has not yet prepared himself for the future, there is a danger that in two or three decades there will be severe food shortages in many countries. They say that now we have only forests left. Are So we need to make big changes in farming methods.

Amid mounting pressure on the agricultural sector, a leading US agricultural research center says that by adopting one or more of the best measures it has discovered, farmers growing corn, wheat and rice will significantly increase grain production and more people. Mark Rosegrant, author of a report by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in Washington, says that in 2050, either agricultural technology or farming methods will be of any use to the world. Will not be able to provide enough food.

It should be noted that Rosegrant has measured the impact of agricultural innovations on agricultural production, prices and appetite. According to him, instead of adopting one method or technology, we should advocate and use different types of these technologies to maximize productivity.

In a report entitled “Food Security in a World of Growing Natural Resources: The Role of Agricultural Technologies”, Rosegrant says that without plowing the land in the traditional way, maize production will increase by 20%. Irrigation in the same fields can increase production by up to 67%. He writes that if no advanced methods are adopted, maize production can be reduced by 18% by 2050. , Which will make it more difficult to feed the growing population.

Especially in developing countries, technologies can keep food prices low for two to four people at risk of starvation and malnutrition. On the one hand, he says, the world’s population is growing rapidly, and on the other, farmers are facing climate change and declining cultivable land and water shortages. In such a scenario, the combination of future technologies will have a profound effect on agricultural production, food consumption, food security, trade and environmental standards in developing countries.

The report emphasizes the need to further support agricultural research and help farmers learn to use advanced technologies, such as tillage without traditional plowing methods and methods such as water leakage and spraying. It should be noted that in the irrigation leakage technique a small amount of water is given directly around each plant and in the spraying technique the crops are supplied with water through pressure pipes.

The report also focuses on advanced technologies for drought and drought tolerant and well-fertilized seeds, water management for agriculture and better handling of pests, diseases and herbs. ۔ The report also states that technologies that reduce water use and nitrogen flow are important in minimizing the impact of agriculture on the environment.

According to agronomists, it is important to analyze the fertility of agricultural land and it is beneficial for farmers. Plants need 16 different elements to grow. Some of these elements are obtained from plants, but most of the elements reach the plants from the ground through the roots. Due to the lack of these elements, the plant does not grow properly. Ma Harin says that it is very important to carry out physical and chemical analysis of soil fertility so that the rate of elements in the soil can be known and fertilizers can be applied accordingly.

According to some agronomists, the use of bio-fertilizers can significantly increase the production of agricultural commodities. It can increase the yield of legumes by up to 100 percent. According to experts, bio-fertilizers contain such microbes. Their presence in the soil not only maintains its natural fertility but also causes an increase in it.

Some Pakistani agricultural experts are of the view that better yields can be achieved by cultivating non-seasonal vegetables by promoting the trend of tunnel farming in the country. According to him, in addition to ensuring water saving through solid skins, drip irrigation and sprinkler system, by irrigating the crop in a better and easier way, cultivation of common green and cash crops has reduced costs and labor and increased income. According to him, farmers get less financial benefit from the cultivation of common greens as compared to non-seasonal vegetables through tunnel culture.

According to these experts, the green system of tunnel farming protects the crop from the harmful effects of extreme weather in extreme heat and cold, which not only enhances the beauty of the soil but also meets the local needs of fruits. According to him, farmers who want to adopt tunnel farming can consult the Department of Agriculture and agronomists.

Agriculture experts say that for the promotion of tunnel farming in the country, there is an urgent need to impart agricultural education and training to the farmers, because without it, 100% of the target cannot be achieved. If this happens, the farmer’s production will double. Can With the help of this technology, unseasonal greens can be grown using less water. It should be noted that our farmers have to grow vegetables from December to February due to low temperature during winter. There are problems at work.

In view of these problems, tunnel farming method was introduced in the country, which can grow vegetables even at very low temperatures. However, due to lack of proper guidance and awareness, most farmers resort to traditional methods. Keep giving priority to But now tunnel farming is gaining popularity among some large and medium-sized progressive farmers.

Tunnel farming is divided into three types, viz., High, medium or walk-in and small tunnels. Tunnel farming can yield three to four times more than a normal crop. It also uses fertilizers and water. In a way, this is a very profitable method for the farmer. Apparently it is expensive, that is why most of our farmers are hesitant. But with this method of cultivation, one can reap the benefits for three to four years by investing once.

Some of our farmers have adopted this new method of farming considering the need of the hour. According to them, “People like to eat non-seasonal vegetables and they have also made good profits by selling the vegetables obtained from the tunnel abroad According to the farmers, vegetables need more care during tunnel farming but the profit margin is high.

The tunnel is always oriented from east to west, so that maximum sunlight falls on it and heat is generated inside. The construction of a high tunnel on an acre of land costs around Rs. 12 lakhs. The middle tunnel costs Rs. 4 lakh per acre. Iron or white, bamboo and mulberry wood are used in the construction of both the tunnels. Each tunnel uses nylon nets to carry vegetable bales at an additional cost. Cucumbers, tandoori, bitter gourd, tomato, capsicum, green pepper, eggplant and watermelon can be easily cultivated in these two types of tunnels and the crop can be harvested earlier than in small tunnels.

The tunnels are made in the shape of the letter U or inverted V to protect them from damage from rain or strong winds and are covered with a plastic sheet. About 170 kg for medium tunnels and three for large tunnels. One hundred kilos of plastic sheet is used, which costs Rs. 55,000 and Rs. 100,000 respectively. Due to the high cost, small tunnels are more suitable and beneficial for local farmers. It has a slightly lower air pressure than a large tunnel and does not require much money to build.

According to agronomists, if our farmers want, three to four crops can be grown on one acre of land at a time. With the help of day and night efforts, agronomists have introduced some varieties of crops whose average yield is much better.

Experts say that mixed cultivation of sunflower and Bt cotton can easily earn farmers an income of around Rs 150,000 per acre. According to agricultural experts, if more attention is paid to Bt crops, the chances of improvement in agricultural production are very high.

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