River Indus

By: Roshan Umar

The Indus is the largest river in South Asia and one of the largest rivers in the world. Its length is 2000 thousand miles or 3200 kilometers. Its total drainage area is 450,000 square miles or 1,165,000 square kilometers. Of this, it flows 175,000 square miles or 453,000 square kilometers in the mountainous region (Karakoram, Himalayas and Hindu Kush) and in the rest of the plains of Pakistan. Kailash is a sub-mountain range of the Himalayas in the Chinese region of Tibet. In the middle of Kailash is a mountain called Kailash on the shores of Lake Mansarovar. Which is considered to be the source of the Indus River. The lake is home to four major rivers flowing into the subcontinent, including the Indus.

The Sutlej flows out of the elephant’s mouth to the west. The Ganges flows southward from the beak of the peacock. The Brahmaputra flows out of the horse’s mouth in an easterly direction. And the river Indus flows out of the mouth of the lion to the north.

For a time, research on the Indus River was considered as far as Lake Mansour. Even in 1811, William Moore Craft visited the area and said that the starting point of Sindh was not Lake Mansaro but the rivers flowing from the south into the lake. Further research on the same theory led Seven Hayden to reach the Sangi Kebab or Singe Kebab area, 40 km above the lake, in 1907. Where the flowing river Garting or Gartang only supplies water to Lake Mansaro. Therefore, the Garting River is the starting point of the Indus. Sangi kebab means lion’s mouth. For this reason, the Indus River is called the Lion River.

The Garting River flows northwest into Lake Mansaro. From here the river starts its journey towards Ladakh. The river is bounded on the north by the Karakoram and on the south by the Himalayas. At the site of the Nebra Valley, the river Nebra, formed by the waters of the Siachen Glacier, joins it. Even the length of the river is about 450 km. Then the Indus River enters the Pakistani territory of Baltistan.

As soon as the Indus River enters Pakistan, it first joins the Shewak River, then goes 30 km further and falls into the Shigar River near the city of Skardu. Going further, in the shadow of Hindu Kush, the river Gilgit joins it and then the river Astor coming from Nanga Parbat.

As soon as the Indus River enters the low-lying area from the high hills. A huge wall has been built at Tarbela and converted into a dam. This is Tarbela Dam. Going a little further, it joins the Kabul River at Attock, near General Road. The Indus River flows from the Pothohari Hills to Kala Bagh. Kalabagh is the place from where the mountain journey of the Indus River ends and the field journey begins.

The Sawan River meets the Indus at Kala Bagh. A little further west, the river Kurram joins it. Going further, the Gomal River coming from Mount Solomon joins the Indus River. A little further from Muzaffargarh comes the place of Panjnad where the five rivers of Punjab, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas merge into the Indus.

From Guddu, Sindh flows in a southerly direction. From the center of Sukkur city and passing through Larkana and Moin Jo Daro to the Sehwan hills. Passing through the Hyderabad side, passing east of Thatta, Kati Bandar divides into many small branches and joins the Arabian Sea.

This river also has the honor of being named after Sindh and India or India. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, this river is called Abasin, meaning the father of rivers. The Aryans wrote their holy book Rig Veda on the banks of this river. There are many Ashloks in the definition of this river in the Rig Veda. It is the only river in the subcontinent worshiped by Hindus and is also called Adero Lal and Jhula Lal. One of the oldest civilizations in the world was born on this river. In ancient times, one could enter the subcontinent from Central Asia only after crossing this river. This river is also called the Lion River because of its rapidity and spontaneity.

This river which flows near Kailash and travels 1800 miles and falls into the Arabian Sea. Mount Kailash, the mountain of Hindus and Buddhists, is the city of Brahma and is the original abode of the gods Agni, Vayu and Indra. This area is also called the valley of lakes. Because there are two big lakes. In which Man Sarod is considered sacred and Raksh Tal is considered ominous.

The Tibetans said that the lake is also the source of the Indus and three other rivers, the Brahmaputra, the Karnali (a major tributary of the Ganges) and the Sutlej. The same was said by the Hindus and Buddhists, and their religious images showed the four rivers flowing out of the mouths of the four animals in the lake. From the east, the Brahmaputra emerges from the mouth of a horse, Karnali from the mouth of a peacock in the south, the Sutlej from the mouth of an elephant in the west, and the Indus River from the mouth of a tiger or sangi kebab. That is why this river is called Sangi Kebab in Tibet.

European geographers viewed with skepticism the Tibetan tradition that Lake Mansour was the source of four major rivers. He believed that the source of the Indus River was in the hilly region of Kailash. Thus, in 1858, when a railway line was being constructed in the northwestern part of the subcontinent, the map drawn for it showed the Indus River rising from Mount Kailash. However, its source remained hidden until the beginning of the nineteenth century, and the identification of the valleys and peaks of a complex and vast area of ​​the plateau was only a matter of time.

By the end of the 19th century, many Europeans had traveled to Lake Mansour and sought to trace the source of the Indus. The main reason for their failure was that Tibetan authorities did not allow any Europeans to survey the lake. Still, many Europeans arrived in disguise, and by the end of the 19th century, the source of the Sutlej (Elephant River) and Karnali (Moore River) had been explored. Fifteen miles to the southwest, they emerge from Lake Shaitan or Raksh, which is connected to Lake Mansarovar by a false stream. But the source of the Horse River and the Lion Tiger River (Brahmaputra and Indus) was not yet known and they did not know the exact source yet.

The award went to Seven Hayden, a Swedish tourist. He had earlier discovered the initial course of the Brahmaputra sixty miles east of Mansarovar. He reached Mansarovar Lake again in 1907 in search of Sangi Kebab, the mouth of the Sher River, and he came to the conclusion that the source of the Indus is somewhere north of the lake and the Brahmaputra flows out of the Raks Tal. So Hayden wanted to go northwest. It. The Tibetan officer insisted.

Eventually, Hayden, with the help of a few shepherds, reached the cupboard. He was the first white man to reach the source of Sindh and Brahma Batra. But the fact is that this river has many mouths and which of them should be considered as the source of Indus river. But since the tradition is in favor of Sangi Kebab, it is recognized as the source of the Indus River.

Although Sangi Kebab is only thirty miles from Lake Mansarovar. But the Tibetan authorities believed that the Indus River flows from Lake Mansour. Because a very powerful river must come out of this holy lake. Although these four rivers do not flow out of the lake, they do not flow far from the lake. Thus, these traditions were not very wrong and we can say that these rivers flow from one place and flow in different directions.

In Tibet, the Indus River carries with it water from various streams, where brown dunes and snow-capped white mountains touch the skies, and in the middle, the Indus River flows blue and wide. One of its currents which is the southern source and passes through the slope of Kailash passing in front of Garting and Gyatima and the other is the northern branch which flows from the north of Kailash range and joins the flowing southern branch Passes close to The first tributary of the Indus, the Garting River, is found here. The Garting River is the same as the Indus and flows through an open valley. It is bordered by Garting, the capital of Garting Province in western Tibet. While the Indus River is forced to wander in the mountains because of its source. Here, after joining both the rivers Mill or Garting and Sindh, the river Indus flows at an altitude of ten thousand feet and flows while traveling. Here, in the background, the white peaks of the mountains stand out. Here the river Indus gradually flows northwest towards Ladakh. Here is Tashi Gang, the last village in Tibet. Prayer flags and tombs were erected on the first rocky path here. Houses made of uncut stone and wooden beams are buried in the background of a monastery built along the Indus River, and only the monastery can be seen.

There are few villages in its path that are inhabited all year round. They are five to twenty-five miles apart. Built with the help of uncut stones and wood, these villages are usually settled on small cultivable plots of land along the tributaries of the Indus River. Sangi Kebab (Indus River) travels through the high valleys west of the Tibetan Plateau, turns northwest and then turns west, and if you look at this map, it looks like a sickle or a crescent. ۔ Therefore, the initial journey of this river is in western Tibet. The Indus River flows past western Tibet to Kashmir.

It starts from the plains, passes through the rocks and goes upwards along the banks of the river Indus. On one side of it are the walls of high mountains and on the other side are the vertical ditches leading to the river Indus and the slippery avalanches and mudslides.

Millions of years ago, there was a murky sea here. Fossils of marine animals and plants were found both above and below the ground. Which indicates that the land here has been flooded and raised many times. The present mountain ranges came into being about a thousand million years ago. Geological changes have pushed the Central Asian plateau southward towards the subcontinent. A solid rock with deep roots that was probably the oldest rock in the world was buried under the subcontinent. For millions of years, an irresistible force to the north kept pushing against it, and gradually the land level between them began to rise, and thus the Karakoram and Himalayan ranges came into being and the sea Made its way to the east and west and flowed. Pressure continued to the south, and about 500,000 years ago, the Kailash Range began to emerge between the Himalayas and the Karakoram Range. Which blocked the earlier waterways, giving rise to two separate river systems, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra to the south and east, and the Indus and the Sutlej to the north and west.

The sources of the Indus and the Ganges are only sixty miles apart, and the two rivers flow in opposite directions and fall into two different oceans, forming a triangle in the middle of the subcontinent. This is proof that there was once an ocean. The surface of Central Asia is still rising, and the mountains that encircle the Indus are still rising and shrinking to the south. That is why there are frequent earthquakes and landslides.

The Indus Valley receives less than three inches of rain annually. Here the mountains are barren and some open fields are full of sand and the air is dry and polluted. Snowfall is like small grains. Surface rocks are broken and have drawers. The surface of the earth is sandy or loose with pebbles in the soil. In the process of erosion, the Indus and its tributaries have left traces that suggest that they once flowed at high levels. Their passages consist of rocks and boulders rounded by water. It could be the remnants of an old gulchir, or the rocks rolled around in the swift waves of summer water. Excessive differences in winter and summer temperatures have weakened the earth’s surface. Due to which it is common for landslides, mudslides and rocks to slip. Glaciers in high valleys add large chunks of glaciers to the Indus and its tributaries. Sometimes a glacier comes forward and stops the river for months and when the water of the river breaks it, it moves like a hurricane and destroys everything that comes in the way, villages, waste and trees.

Between the narrow and rocky walls, the Indus flows mostly trapped in sloping rocks. The scenery here is awe-inspiring. Such a long chain of Great Anshan valleys is not found anywhere else on the planet. On the narrow path, high vertical rocks in one direction and foaming river flowing vertically in the other side. No bushes can be seen here in the distance. The river flows with dignity and majesty to those who pass through the lofty cliffs of its majestic mountain ranges, rocky cliffs and narrow ravines, which have not changed for centuries.

Near the border of Ladakh, the mountains come close to the Indus River, and as it turns north, its slope begins to rise rapidly. The river flows between these vertical cliffs and passes between the Himalayas and the Karakoram. Here the great Himalayas and the Karakoram range come close. During its 350-mile journey, numerous streams and rivers flow into it, and its shape on the map is such that numerous threads are joining the blue line of the Indus River.

Where the mountains on the side gradually take the form of a pass and along the valleys of Sindh and its rivers were the caravan highways to the northwest. Some of these highways lead north to Central Asia and India. Traders traveled on mules and packed their belongings on yaks and donkeys. There were no bridges over the Indus River and people and animals swam or walked in the strong waves. In the form of deep water, yaks and ponies are natural swimmers who used to swim across the river by holding their tails. The goats could not swim, but the sheep would cross the river diagonally according to the waves.

Snowfall in the valley in winter freezes the river. But under the ice the water is flowing rather fast. Therefore, the frozen river is carefully crossed. Avalanches come crashing down the narrow gorges, and large boulders crash into rocky cliffs. In which often small and large pieces of stone are trapped. In the summer, when the snow and glaciers on the mountains begin to melt, the noise of the river increases with the rising water. There the bare rocks absorb the heat of the sun and become furnaces. But where the sun does not reach, it is very cold and many rivers melt for only a few hours. Anyone out there who is naked in the sun and in the shadow of their feet can suffer heatstroke and frostbite at the same time. There are strong winds in some parts of the valleys in all seasons. Which lift the whirlpool of sand. Fields and trees are found here and there in rivers and tributaries. The mountains along the Indus River erupt into a narrow gorge about every ten miles. Where in the summer the floodwaters in the stream of water bring with them molten snow from the mountains. There are small villages here. In front of them, in the steep-sloping fields, farmers are working hard to fill the baskets to fill the gaps left by the wind. They have to work hard to establish their small lands. Here animals are used for burning crops and human crops are used for fertilizer. Apart from the fields that the villagers have worked so hard to build in this valley, no vegetation can be seen.

Trails could be seen walking along the river. Which were usually very high above the river. But in some places she would walk with him and in some places she would walk away from him. Because the slopes here are so dangerous that even goats can’t walk on them. For hundreds of years, traders and religious pilgrims have been using this route to reach Brahmaputra from the Hindu Kush in northern India. Along the Indus River, villages and Buddhist monasteries served as residences and trade centers for passers-by. These monasteries were located on rugged cliffs or dunes within the Indus River. Roads coming from different parts of the country used to meet the routes along the Indus River. In this way, they provided access to those from Central Asia and the South. These trails and routes were the passages of merchants and religious pilgrims from different regions and nations. Due to which the towns and villages along these routes flourished. Some of the passages that pass through the Karakoram and the Himalayas are very dangerous and open only for a short period of the year. But despite the difficulties, these gates never closed.

In the north, the Karakoram separates the Indus from Central Asia. There seemed to be no way out in these mountains. But musk, silk, and other merchandise came from here. There is no passage here that is less difficult and even the roads were often closed due to various wars and enmities. Therefore, most caravans had to use more difficult routes. In addition, there are many ways that have been used, but they have become unusable in the last two hundred years in the yellow of Gulshir.

The most important route to the north is the Karakoram Route, which climbs a mountain range from Ladakh and then descends a dangerous slope to cross a bend in the Shiwak River and then another hill. It ascends the range and then descends, crossing a tributary of the Shiwak River and entering Central Asia.

There are eleven gates that are up to eighteen thousand feet high. Between the subcontinent and China, the Karakoram Pass is 19,000 feet high and can only be crossed in summer. Here the snow melts for a few months and a desert of black sand and pebbles emerges from below. This is a very cruel way. No vegetation grows on this path. There are four high passes here, but the distance they have to cover is more than the Karakoram route, so the Karakoram route has always been the main route from the Upper Indus Valley to the north.

The Himalayan wall to the south and to the left of the Indus is farther away than the Karakoram, and it has some easy passes. The most important of these is the Dhula Pass, which has access to the subcontinent via Kashmir. It is eleven thousand feet high and is open eight months of the year.

Life on the Indus River near Ladakh is very difficult. The average height here is more than ten thousand feet. The lungs of the people of Ladakhi work harder than the average person to adapt to this gentle breeze. The people either cared for the flocks or tended the small corn fields and the passing merchants exchanged goods. Some young people also took up the profession of poisoning. Who robbed merchants and travelers.

Laha, the capital of Ladakh, has been a hub of trade for thousands of years. The city is located at an altitude of 11,000 feet on the northern bank of the Indus River. The city is located on the edge of a large floodplain beneath the barren mountains that stretches for four miles. The Indus River and ancient trade and religious links with Layyah are often referred to as Little Tibet.

The area is rocky and barren and is prone to natural disasters such as severe storms, slippery cliffs and glaciers. In addition to agricultural production on its hard-earned lands, Ladakh’s economy depended on the Indus and its trade routes. The Karakoram Pass and the Zoji La Pass, which are the northern and southern routes from Sindh, respectively, are located near Laha. In front of the narrow, dark shops in Laha’s bazaars were piles of wool and dung from Central Asia. Gold and silver and edges shone in the dark rooms behind the shops. Small ponies from Turkestan used to pass by fast-moving, slow-moving crescent-horned yaks. White-colored yarkandis, Tibetans with loose-fitting fur-clad Tibetan mustaches hanging downwards, Indians in clean clothes, rubbing their shoulders shoulder to shoulder in the wide staircase streets, and speaking in mixed languages. Used to While the people of Laha used to look at the crowd with amazement that they were getting employment opportunities in this city located in the high mountains because of these strangers. Occasionally, in a crowd pushing each other, where differences are considered trivial, a man dressed as a Westerner would appear.

In the 19th century, Europeans would stay in Leh for a week or two, buying qali, yaks, and camping equipment for their expeditions. They were all enchanted by the Indus Valley and its desert. They included tourists, surveyors and spies. Some of them came to gain fame. These people were fascinated by the high and lofty valley and they have rarely told the world about their campaign. But some people have described the events, feelings and thoughts of the journey.

The surrounding powers were to occupy the mountain passes and trade routes that ran along the Indus and its tributaries and canals. Surrounded by these terrible hardships, for 2,000 years they have been the victims of aggression by their neighbors in which they have no interest, and these wars have always ended at their expense. Dogra Maharaja Gulab Singh established his supremacy over them.

After the British left the subcontinent, the Raja of Kashmir could not decide despite the majority of Muslims. This led to the liberation movement in Kashmir and Gilgit and the Mujahideen liberated Gilgit and Baltistan and reached near Ladakh. On this India landed its troops in Kashmir and got the Maharaja to sign a petition for annexation of Kashmir. With the partition of the subcontinent in 1947, Laha was occupied by India and its neighbor Baltistan in the west is now part of Pakistan. Along with Sindh, the centuries-old road from east to west has been closed.

Valley of Dangers

Immediately after Laha in the Indus Valley, the Indus River enters the Baltistan region of Pakistan, crossing the ceasefire line. Kargil is the area before entering Pakistani territory. Here, too, the river travels rapidly downwards in barren and vertical ditches. Narrow gorges sometimes turn into small valleys. In which a little bit of farming can be seen. Gradually the mountains rise on both sides and come closer to the river. To the south of the Karakoram, the sloping and narrow mountain range of Ladakh runs along the right bank of the river. After which the mountain range of Ladakh ends after one and a half hundred miles flowing parallel to the river Shivak Indus, then it joins the Indus River. Twenty miles later, near Skardu, another tributary, the Shigar, comes from the heights of the Karakoram and joins the Indus.

The Shiwak, Shigar and twenty other small rivers provide livelihoods for the people living in their valleys as well as endanger them. Most glaciers on mountain slopes are dangerous. They continue to wreak havoc and cause tragic accidents for life and property. Any slope in the mountains suddenly pushes down a huge and terrifying amount of mud and rocks. Which slips and fades everything in its path. Because there are no bushes or grass on these mountains that can hold their soil and as the snow melts, these great landslides soften and slide down without any warning. Occasionally there are earthquakes, but catastrophic storms are common.

At Skardu, the Indus Valley is like an oval bowl, seven and a half thousand feet above sea level, twenty miles long and eight miles wide. It is surrounded by purple, red, brown and brown rocky mountains that are 17,000 feet high. There is yellow sand in the valley. In which the river Indus, which is green in winter and faded like silver in summer, is biting like a snake. The river is flowing in the sand scattered in the form of waves due to the wind. Passes by the rock. On which stands Alexander the Great. For millions of years, the river has been making its way through the rocks and cutting through them, reaching deeper. Flowing at different heights, the river has cut into the rocks on the banks of the valley, which can still be seen at various heights, leaning forward and spreading in the form of platforms. In the distance, dry and rocky mountains, with their pointed protruding peaks, line up back and forth, sinking into the sky. The air here is so clear that the eyes are deceived. What appears to be very close, if viewed from a distance, is apparently a few hundred yards away on the other side of the river, the bushes growing at least three miles away, large trees can be seen. On the other side, a child playing with water, a young man is seen unloading a boat in the river. Everywhere you look today, the tide of protectionist sentiment is flowing. Nowhere in the world do so many different mountains appear together in one place. Nowhere do so many hills change scenery, nowhere do you see such a beautiful atmosphere and wonderful colors.

There are light gray, brown beige, blue beige and pale beige mountains. Sometimes white stripes are visible on them. The white sand around the Indus is glistening like stars. The night scene is also visible here. If you stand on the river bank and look around, the lights of the houses in the deep history look as if the stars have come down to earth. In summer, when it is very hot in the plains, there is no shade on the barren slopes and the rocks are burning like a furnace in the sun and the scorching heat of the day turns into bitter cold at night.

The ancient religion of the inhabitants here was Buddhism, whose imprints are found on the rocks. These people later became Muslims. After independence, people revolted and asked Pakistan for integration and help. Pakistan accepted the request and arranged for the delivery of arms and ammunition by air. However, in the meantime, India recaptured the eastern part of Baltistan and could not be evacuated due to the ceasefire. Since independence, the city has grown exponentially. Attempts were made to improve the top-down insulation system. The road from Skardu to Gilgit was not by-pass. K2 and other peaks and places in the Karakoram trekking mountaineering and T. go from the same city. The town is no more and has become the second largest city in the region.

Below Skardu, on the way to Bansat Ladakh, are more terrifying valleys. From here, the Indus River flows through the great Anshan valleys, and for miles there is nothing but vertical rocks between the water and the sky. Here a footpath with rocks by the river passed through spider webs spread like spider webs in the vertical rocks. In which wooden stairs were installed to go up and down Jabja. Somewhere in it were wooden huts which people used to travel holding. The rope bridges at the height of the paths that led from one mountain to another were to cross the river on these swinging ropes. I felt dizzy seeing the river flowing down.

Now a road has been built here which is connected to the Silk Road by a bridge. On this road, along the walls of Karakoram, on the other side of the road, the Indus River is flowing with full turbulence and across the river are the vertical slopes of the Himalayas. Which sometimes looks green. This road is considered one of the most dangerous roads in the world. There is always the risk of landslides and you have to work day and night to keep the road open. The construction of this road is a great human achievement and one of the wonders of the world. Although this road is wide enough, it cannot be called a good road. Even so, owning one is still beyond the reach of the average person. When it was built, it was not seen how many miles the road was built in a month, but how many feet it was built. Before it became a major road, there was no road, but steep cliffs along the river. Initially, when the road was built, it was so wide that barely a jeep could ride on it, or mules or cattle, or just on foot. But later it was widened so that two vehicles could run on it at the same time. The suspension bridges that are built on it, although very strong, but when the vehicle passes over them, the bridges squeak in a terrible sound. Which makes the hearts of weak people tremble. But thanks to this road, Skardu is connected to other parts of Pakistan all year round.

Here you can see some up and down fields with some mud houses. Otherwise, it is a strange and horrible journey. In which the splendor of the mountains and the turbulence of the river are prominent. This road runs along the river, only a few miles away. In some places it flows down a few feet and in some places it rises hundreds of feet above the river. Its ascent also has an angle of more than forty-five degrees in some places. When this road meets the Silk Road, it is in front of the Hindu Kush mountain range and the high plateau of the Pamirs. To the north, along the Karakoram wall, stand two high mountains, the giant Haramush and the Raka Pushi. Suddenly a mountain in the Himalayas in the southeast is talking to the sky. The road joins the Silk Road from Skardu to the Gilgit River near the Indus River at Janglot, which runs from China to Islamabad via Gilgit.

Here the river Gilgit meets the Indus on the right. They match like the English letters y and flow here and there. The place where the Gilgit River meets the Indus is not a common place. This place is like no other in the world. Here the three great mountain ranges of the world, the Karakoram, the Himalayas and the Indo-Kush, stand guard against each other. They have been prevented from meeting the Indus and Gilgit rivers.

The river Indus is trapped in the foothills and is flowing with force. It is also terrifying to look at its flow. Kala Bagh is less than 300 miles from Janglot. But advancing from the west, the river passes through a narrow gorge, finding its way through the Hindu Kush and the valley, which is surrounded by great walls of sudden barbarism from the south. Cutting this turn, roaring and shouting from one valley to another, these two sins cover the distance.

Gilgit is an ancient region. Buddhism spread here a hundred years before the birth of Jesus. Buddhist pilgrims from China who visited Peshawar, Kashmir, Taxila and other places used to pass through here. Before the occupation of Dogra, it was called Darstan and there were small states of Gilgit, Si, Hasura, Ponial, Nagar, Hunza, Bwanji, Ashkuman, Guichal, Badakhshan, Dalil, Tankhir, Gore, Tehelja, Spals and Astor. Who lost their power by fighting among themselves. Gulab Singh of Mahara Kashmir took advantage of the opportunity in 1851 and made them tax collectors one by one or occupied them.

But they did not accept slavery and the yoke of slavery was too heavy for them. Therefore, the area remained in constant turmoil. The fort had to have a permanent army. But when the people here were subjected to more hardships, the British set up an agency in 1877. In time, he recruited paramilitary forces here. Named the Gilgit Scout. Its job was to maintain law and order and defend the area from its neighbors. At the time of partition, the Hindu governor and two British junior officers decided to support the Muslims of Gilgit. People here wanted to join Pakistan.

Gilgit is the capital of Gilgit-Baltistan and a busy city. Because it is located on the Silk Road and Chinese trade is on this route, many of its citizens are engaged in trade. They have contact and transportation with China to buy and sell Chinese goods. Its markets are full of Chinese goods. The city is a special tourist destination. So there are a lot of hotels that look foreign. These foreigners go to T for mountaineering, trekking and various expeditions. It also provides employment opportunities to the people here.

As we move on, another large river is pouring its water into the Indus. This is the Astor River, the gray water of which remains prominent in the Indus River for a long time.

Nanga Parbat
Going from Gilgit to the river, Nanga Parbat can be seen from somewhere. Nanga Parbat is not a single mountain. One giant temple, consisting of successive mountains and vertical cliffs, is a mound of mud and snow that rises to a height of twenty-six thousand six hundred and sixty feet and ends at the highest snow-capped peaks. Here the river Indus is flowing in the shadow of Nanga Parbat.

There are many ways to reach Nanga Parbat and everyone who is eager to see Nanga Parbat up close tries to get as close to it as he can. Nanga Barbat is only 14 miles from the Indus. It is very hot near the river below and very cold on the heights of Nanga Parbat.

The river has dug so deep in this area that only a few hours of sunshine can reach here. It is a land of great heights and low caves. It’s mostly ugly and scary, it has a strange effect on the heart. This is a land of great horror and terror. In the vastness of this valley, at the foot of the Indus Nanga Parbat, a great and winding river at the foot of the Nanga Parbat, a narrow river seems to be flowing calmly. If we turn towards the northern plains by the river, we will have such a fascinating scene in front of us. Far from the scorching desert, the icy mountains, greenery and sand will all be prominent at the same time. It will be a fascinating scene in which a person loses his charm and finds himself lost in another world.

The area is as barren as the Arabian desert, with countless flood devastation stories. Surrounded by vertical cliffs and walls, it is a Gorkha fog of rocks and deep stories in which human footsteps have probably never set foot. Where a pile of rocky debris deprived of the name of greenery and plants and walking on them is like walking alone in the mountains of the moon. There is always a flood flowing silently in the abyss of the flowing river and when a big whirlpool is created, it throws up the water of deep roar with all its fury.

There are also human settlements here and a settlement is also settled here from the soil brought by the river which chases between the mountains. There are some villages where the sun is not visible for the whole six months of winter and in some villages the land gets so hot in summer that the residents are forced to migrate.

In the upper plains east of Peshawar, the Indus River overflows and overflows. Immediately after the point where the Kabul River pours its dark reddish brown water into the gray Sindh water. Going down a little, the plateau ends near the small town of Attock and the Indus River once again converges and passes through a narrow path through a series of rocky hills. Where the slope is 200 yards wide. Here the gray water of the river mixes with the reddish brown water and flows in a fast current. With a little calm in winter and in summer when the closed doors of glaciers on the high hills open, the river level rises by fifty feet, it roars like a mighty horse, whirring, whirling, foaming. Making, passing the greenish-gray whirlpool and cutting through the hills. The scene of his journey here is so impressive that the locals call him Abasin, the father of rivers.

Earlier, the Indus River was crossed from here by a bridge. Here the waves crashing against the big black rocks break them into bumps. Due to the speed of the waves, the boats float very fast and catch fire on the other shore. Boats often collided and shattered on this wharf. Especially with the two big rocks on the right bank. These rocks are named after two infidels, Kamala and Jalala. According to the tradition of the locals, they were blown up here by Akbar. Across Attock, on a rock on the right bank of the Indus, are inscriptions of British regiments who have been fighting in the area for years. The fort built by Akbar at Attock lasted for two hundred years. But in the early nineteenth century, the Sikhs built another fort on the other side of the river called Khairabad, the remains of which are still scarce. The two forts stood opposite each other. In the winter, a bridge of boats joined the two, and in the summer, when the river overflowed, it had to be removed. For the bridge over the river at Attock, 24 boats were enough to head the course of the river. But at least 36 boats were needed upstairs. The bridge could not withstand the floods between June and September, and a new bridge had to be built each time.

In 1886, the British built a permanent bridge here. The water is 100 feet above the surface so that the bridge is not damaged by water pressure in case of any glaciers or landslides in the upper areas. Although many times this bridge has survived the sinking. The construction of Tarbela Dam has reduced this threat. The train passes over this bridge and the road passes below. With the construction of this bridge, there was no need for boats. Standing on one side of the bridge, Akbari Fort tells the story of the Mughal invasion and on the other side, the ruins of the ruined fort of the Sikhs are lamenting their destruction.

About a hundred miles down between Attock and Kala Bagh, the Indus River flows through such a rocky area at the bottom of a deep ditch. These areas are often barren but green in many places. The Tarah Mountains on the West Bank are descending from the heights of Afghanistan and the land is rocky. There are small mustard fields in Bihar and the ground is flat in many places. But hard rocks are also visible here. There is a series of distant hills on the east coast. Archaeologists have unearthed a prehistoric city here.

Compared to the Kabul Valley, the population is less here and there were river piers and boats. There are also tall buildings, stupas or temple ruins. Here, too, the Indus often overflows thousands of miles into the plains. Here, in the narrow valleys below Attock, the river flows high in the vertical cliffs, and at its bottom there are numerous pointed rocks, and in many places its depth is more than thirty feet. In some places it suddenly rises two and a half hundred feet down and most of the time the river passes through a rocky path and there are whirlpools in the river. Most of the cargo boats overturned in the yellow. Despite all these dangers, for hundreds of years the river has been a one-way means of transporting goods down the Attock for centuries.


Khushalgarh is located on the river bank and Kohat to its west. There was a large army cantonment here from the time of the British. Where the Pakistani army is now stationed. There used to be a boat bridge here. The British built a bridge here. A new bridge was built here in 1907 for the regular use of rail and road. The river Son meets it here. Stone tools from prehistoric Paleolithic times are abundant here. Its width suggests that it was once the largest river in the valley. Geologists believe that at one point during the rise or fall of the Himalayas and the Karakoram, the water was pushed west. This water made this way out. Today gold is a small river. When it rains, its water turns red like blood and turns the water of the Indus River red in the distance. Ten miles down the river path, the black and brown northern slopes of the Salt Mountains, torn apart by rainwater, stand. The road is so steep and full of slots that it is almost impossible to get through. Here the Indus River moves forward with all its might that nothing can resist its path for long. This is where the construction of Kala Bagh Dam is proposed. Although this is an ideal place to build a dam. But it could not be built because other provinces besides Punjab are not ready for the construction of this dam. The construction of the dam here was proposed by the World Bank and international financial institutions even before Tarbela and this proposal has been repeated many times. Although many governments have tried to build a dam here and some work has been done. But apart from the province of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh strongly opposed and had to stop its construction. Construction missionaries and other supplies were scattered near the river. Which was brought in for the initial efforts to build this dam and is now rusting due to not being used.

To the south are the red and purple rocks of the Kohistan Salt, and from here the river enters the plains. There is Kala Bagh on the west bank and Mari Indus on the east bank. A few hundred yards further, a mile wide, and a mile later, its pot spreads to ten miles. There are many islands in the river and they have pastures and agriculture and many small villages are also inhabited. People are displaced by the floods. Here the nurses can see the forest in the distance. When the river rises, these islands disappear, and when the tide changes, new islands appear and the old lands are washed away by the river.

There are also chromium, coal and chips mines. But the most important minerals are salt rocks. In some places the hills here are solid salt and have clear, hard and red veins. Here are the yellow deserts with white salt splatters scattered somewhere. In which thorny bushes can be seen standing at a distance. Strong winds blow in the desert on the west bank of the river.

Thirty miles below Kala Bagh, on the right bank, meets the last notable tributary, the Kurram River. It comes from the great mountains of the Afghan border. In this way, savages and warlords have been constantly attacking India in ancient times. Every time strangers were new but cruel like their predecessors. This stopped after the arrival of the British.

Mianwali is located on the eastern bank of the Indus River. It is an ancient site and has changed many names. A small town has now become a major city. This area is the confluence of the culture of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. Here, if a person is wearing a loose-fitting shawl and shirt on the west bank of the Indus, then he is a Pathan and the same person who wears a dhoti on the east bank of the Indus is called a Punjabi.

Land of floods
This is the land of floods where many ancient relics are found. Alexander’s Salar Saluks was shamefully defeated by Chandra Gupta Moria in 305 BC on the same grounds and relinquished not only the Indian possessions but also Kabul, Kandahar, Herat and Balochistan and married his daughter to Chandra Gupta. Chandra Gupta sent him a gift of five hundred elephants.

Jinnah and Chashma Piraj are also located near Mianwali. Below Kala Bagh, there is sand on both sides of the Indus. The point between the Indus and its last tributary, the Panjnad, is towards the west. The sand here is brown and the water is salty.

Here the river spreads and it gives life to human beings, animals and wastes in the form of water, while it also gives them death and destruction in the form of catastrophic floods. It flows continuously after Kala Bagh up to the area of ​​Deras. In winter, it flows in the form of narrow streams. In which small sand islands appear to be raised and during the flood it expands so much that one who stands on one side cannot see the other side and is forced to believe that ten thousand to build it. Rivers come rushing down to supply it with water.

The sandy plains in the camp area are not just sand. They are yellow, brown and reddish and in some places snow white. In the area where once the sand fields were spread far and wide and animals were seen everywhere. Now the scenario here has changed a lot. Over time, progress has changed here as well. The small towns here spread and became cities. Rabbits, foxes, partridges, mountain hawks, wheels and leopards were also found here. Small crocodiles and owls were also found in the river. Parrots, potatoes, quails, swords, vultures, black partridges, doves, pigeons and many birds were common in the deserts. In the past, when rivers flooded and flooded low-lying areas, ducks, storks, herons and many other waterfowl would gather. But growing populations and indiscriminate hunting have wiped them out. Otherwise, in the past, when the fields were watered, different birds would gather to eat insects and different birds would be seen in these lush fields. But the only birds that can be seen in the fields are those that live in the trees in the forest. Because since the poisonous drugs are being put in these fields to kill the insects, these insects have killed these birds as well as the insects.

In the second half of 1870, the British set up observation stations at various places from where these great rivers flowed from the mountains and began to compile a detailed record of the discharge of water here. Only with the help of such a record of many years is it possible to make any kind of reliable predictions about the permanent changes that will take place in the rivers.

Indus Basin Field
Desert islands are also found in these sea of ​​fields. Sand hills, high barren land and forest-covered pieces of land. Beyond Sukkur Barrage where there is a wide open water area, jetty salt field or the opposite of Shahdad Kot which is deprived of all kinds of vegetation. When the Indus flooded again, he took a ten-mile-wide embankment between his backs and covered most of the land of his delta with his water sheet. Thick meadows in the Rohri area where river forests and lakes (lakes) spread over a distance are covered with dense reeds. Contradictory scenery, with the desert on one side and the extreme desert on the other. Today, modern methods of irrigation are the mainstay of agriculture.

Due to the difference in vegetation, the uncultivated lands were irrigated by river water and the water does not reach the land which is so hard that the top of the horse’s hooves can be heard from afar. The land is made of this mountain soil which is of deep color. The color of the paki is light and on this hard ground you can find thorny thorny trees, leafy shrubs and berries without crabs or keepers which and they survive on nominal rain. Soft sandy soil or sandstone with white and fine particles whose dust is annoying to people. On this land, which has thin branches, is found the plant of Phug and Ak. When this land gets water, there is a lot of greenery and agriculture.

The land along the river is much better. It is a mixture of moist soil and sand. The earthen embankments that form after the flood in the river are covered with greenery of various trees and shrubs. If they survive the rains and the goats and get a chance to grow, then after a while a forest of small trees and bushes will stand. The fertile soil of the river is constantly refreshing. Even the best canal lands are ruined by the constant waste of rice cultivation.

Spread over an area of ​​20,000 square miles, the plain has double slopes. One slope along the course of the Indus River as a longitude and the other slope at a vertical angle on both sides of the Indus. The flood waters of the river contain soil and they continue to spread in the valley with the flood water. This is because their waterways spread the soil in the water through the process of drainage during floods. As a result of this continuous process, the surface of the earth continues to take a slight slope in the direction of the flow of the river, and the rivers continue to form a wide sloping embankment along their banks.

The first sea was in the plains of northwestern India and in the Ganges valley. When mountains appeared here, new rivers joined with old rivers and gained new lands from the retreating sea. This ocean area is filled with a huge reservoir of river mud and takes the shape of a plain. This river mud is present in this field in the form of a layer of several thousand feet. When the snow melts and it rains, the rivers overflow and the discharge of water increases by twenty to forty sins. In this way the river bed becomes ten to twenty times wider. Water velocity increases and soil volume increases. Floodwaters spread all over the slopes and spread their soil there. This raises the level there. And the river takes new paths and starts the process of raising the ground level there as well.

So for thousands of years the river has been leveling the ground. The large amount of soil in the Indus River settles most of the way and so after the flood the soil changes its course and the river adapts its course and speed accordingly. Where the ground is soft and easily absorbed into the water, it gradually expands and flows slowly. If the river forms a semicircle, then it also forms a semicircle equal to it to keep the path straight. He throws the flood waters out of their sides. In this way, as the river gets closer to the sea, its water discharge decreases.

Flood condition
The embankments of the Indus River were built to prevent flood damage. Under normal circumstances, the maximum average amount of water is present at Sukkur Barrage. Doubles during floods. In such cases, high water pressure will have an effect anyway. In 1942, cracks appeared on both sides of the dam above Sukkur and the flood surrounded the surrounding areas and presented the same ancient drama. An ocean of water entered north of Sukkur and Shikarpur and continued to advance westwards over an area three to four miles wide. It then turned south and traveled 180 miles, entering Lake Manjhar. Before the construction of the Begari Dam in Sukkur, it was a flood-prone area. Half of this floodplain flows down the valley beyond Saro Dhand. This is the place where the water of the river Indus flows from the hills. To the north, the floods that began in ancient times on the right bank of the Indus also took a similar route. They started a little below Kashmore. They usually flowed to the west and flowed from almost the same place where river and mountain water meet. The flood near Mohal changed its course a little and as mentioned above, it was the same route between Bagudero and Dostali. The slope that was called the last half of the flood was known as the slope of Sindh some time ago. Both of these floods in northwestern Sindh were exacerbated by the relay of water flowing from the valleys in the north and west. Heavy rains also contributed to the highest discharge of water in Sindh.

The catastrophic floods of 1942 had ruptured the left bank of Qasimpur above Rohri and flooded the entire upper part of the Nara Valley. In earlier times, this area was also filled with water flowing from the shore in times of abundant water. All Rohri divisions located between the Indus and the desert. This is an area that has been flooded in the past. In the past, this fact is still evident from the physical appearance of the area. The most important and long-lasting of these past flood accidents was the one that diverted the Indus at a slope at Ghauspur in Bahawalpur in which water flowed for 120 miles. A dam was built at Kashmore to control the floods and store them. This helped prevent flooding.

There is very little agricultural land in Sindh today. Because the water would depend on the flooding of the river. Rainfall was low in Sindh and agriculture would have been carried out if the floods had passed in the lower reaches of the riverine areas and its tributaries. Although the river Indus had its branches spread out like a big tree and it used to irrigate the lands through its branches. But still many areas were out of reach of river water. In a flood, the water flowing from the banks of the river passes through its flood branches instead of a wide sheet, and after flowing out of these banks, it spreads to more small branches. The paths that feed on them still point to these natural waterways

Minarets can be seen everywhere in the tall buildings of Sukkur city and Rohri is located across the river. There is an island of scattering in the middle. Which has always been of military importance. Another island that is famous for its Hindu temples is Sadhu Bela. From here seven canals flow out of the river. Sukkur Barrage is really impressive. But more impressive here is the Indus River, which passes through a narrow gorge made of limestone, which is only half a mile wide. Aror, the ancient capital of Sindh, is located east of the present river. The first river spans about twelve miles before entering this crack. According to the authentic evidence, for seven hundred years or more, the Indus River has maintained the path of the shattered intersection.

A geological study has revealed that the Indus River has been flowing north and west of Sukkur, south and east of Rohri at different times. From where Sindh Dhoro and Sindh Wah now pass. The existence of the ancient Indus Valley cities of Mohenjo-daro, Loham Jodro, Janhon Jodro, Kot Asur and DG G. Takri proves that in the time of these settlements in the Indus Valley, the main source of the Indus did not necessarily flow in a single stream.

Indus Valley Civilization
The state of Khairpur was on the east bank of the river a little further from Sukkur Barrage. Which is now part of Pakistan. Across the river in front of Khairpur is the city of Larkana. A few miles away are the remains of one of the world’s greatest civilizations. Vincent Smith thought the Bronze Age never came here. Because no traces were discovered before the Moriah era. But after the discovery of these artifacts, all theories changed at once. 1925 Archaeologists announce a spectacular discovery that has no mention in ancient literature. The special ruins of the two cities. Each city was one square mile in its heyday between two and three thousand BC. The southern city of Mohenjo-daro in Sindh and the upper city of Harappa were located on the banks of the Ravi in ​​the Punjab. The houses in these cities were made of multi-storeyed solid brick. They included residential facilities such as drainage, bathrooms and toilets. The population map was fantastic. The buildings had a rectangular series of 400 by 200 yards. There were wide roads and nice little streets. Nowhere else in the world has the urban population found an arrangement that is so complex and sophisticated. In ancient times it was established under a plan. The cities of Egypt were architecturally inferior to their rulers in the form of Mount Peker tombs and great temples. Samaria, Akkad The great cities of Babylon were built without any plan. The streets of all these cities were a pattern of chaos like Rome, London, Paris and later Indian cities. In contrast, the city of Herat in the Indus Valley was a manifestation of urban planning. Angled straight roads, high drainage systems that were not invented in Europe until the eighteenth century.

Before Alexander, Darius sent his Greek general Schalke on the Indus River via the Kabul River. The first Greek writer was Katishas, ​​who gave a detailed account of the Iranians’ knowledge of Sindh. It’s often awkward. In later times, that is, what Alexander’s historians Aristotle Bliss, Ptolemy, Sweater and Narcissus wrote on Sindh did not remain. The writings that have come down to us are references that are Greek and Roman references. They are much better but lack the geographical information. Strabo also wrote about Sindh in the first twenty years of AD.

Megas Theinas who traveled to India twenty-two years after Alexander’s invasion and stayed at Chandra Gupta’s court for a long time. It states that the Indus River has formed a huge island. Which was called Prasian. The other small island is known as Patala. Regarding the location of the island, the Critics state that after the conquest of Mesopotamia, Alexander stationed an army in their capital. Later, in the land of the Prastha tribe, he advanced to Porti Kans as their king. Palani refers to the island as Prussia. Palani mentions many branches of the Indus River. One of them leads to Mount Orbita. Alexander’s associates Aryan and others have not mentioned this branch. According to Aryan, before the Delta was the city of Patala and both branches were called Sindh. Alexander fortified the fort and it was a barren area.

I do not know what the delta’s maritime boundaries were at that time. But at that time the left branch of the river used to flow east of Ganjo Tucker (Hyderabad) and in this area there is a mountain range of Mukli. Which is separated from the rocky ground by a three-mile-long strip of riverine soil. Which usually extends to Karachi and Ross Moes Cape. This is the western route through which the river Indus used to reach the sea. The Mukli Hills or Pir Patho Hills are its southern tip. Klotta will be located in the northeast, which is just south of Mirpur Pathoro. At that time the boundaries of the delta did not extend beyond the hill of Mukli and Pir Pathu and the present boundaries of the sea were the hill of Abhan Shah and the south side of the hills of Mukli and the catcher on the left. The riverine plain here is nominally higher than the sea and may be two thousand years old. Ten miles west of here is the same field. There are mounds of mud and sand hills here and there. Its average height is not more than twenty feet above sea level. The Greeks named many cities on the map of Indonesia, but they could not be identified.

According to Ptolemy, the main island that the Indus River is building with its tributaries is Prussian. The places and information about Sindh mentioned by the Chinese tourist Huang Sang in his travelogue are largely based on speculation. Their names and locations are incorrect, which has led to complications.

Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sindh in the eighth century AD. Who decided the fate of Sindh. Their capital was Mansura, the ruins of which are found eleven miles from Shahdadpur. Blazeri states that Aror is situated on a hill and he also describes it with Bakhror. Chach Nama also says that the fort of Bakhror was opposite to Aror on the banks of Mehran. Istakhri does not mention Bakhror.

Earth changes
According to geological studies, in the third period most of northern India, including Sindh, was under the Tethia Sea. Its waves hit the coast from the Himalayas to Mount Vindhya. Once upon a time, a terrible earthquake in the Himalayas caused the earth to rise and the sea to recede and go far away. This is how the earth appeared here. Strong winds and storms spread the sand here. The rains froze the earth, and the heat made it hard. On the one hand, the rains and the soil brought by the rivers made the land cultivable. The Indus River has given a boost to this area. This river enlarged the land. Even today, life revolves around this river. Without which this area would have become a desert.

Run some more under the Thar sea. Most of the low lying areas of Karachi and Hyderabad were under the sea and in some areas the river flowed. Among them, Shahbandar, Sujawal and Jharkhand areas have recently emerged from the water. The hills of Shahbandar, Thatta and Jharkhand, Surjano towards Koti, Ganjo Tucker of Hyderabad and Rani Kot were not. If any of them emerged, it was like an island in the sea surrounded by water. Therefore, the western hilly region of Sindh was settled first. It was the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age, when most areas were frozen. Where there was no snow, there was a population. These ancient people who did not know how to build a house often lived in caves. These people did not even know farming. They ate wild grains, fruits and herbs or hunted.

Surgeon Marshall says traces of the Neolithic Age have been found in the Lakki Hills in Sindh, the Khirthar Range and the Rohri Hills. It seems that these arenas of retreating from Thatta have appeared. Because of this, people started living here in the New Age. At that time not only the area of ​​Seohan was inhabited but also the hills in the east of Sindh namely Thatta, the Buddhist hills of Jharkhand and the hills from Interpur to Rohri were inhabited.

In ancient times, most of the Thatta Sujawal was hit by the sea. In those days the river Indus used to pass by Nasarpur. In 1758, the river changed its course and took the current route. This stopped the flow of the spread. But when the river turned here, the field appeared.

To the southeast of Pir Pathu is a collection of hills in a half-mile long and half a mile wide. Among them, the high hill known as Ibn Shah is only 75 feet high. This is the last rock in the south of Sindh and it has coarse sandstones. More than a hundred years have passed since the Indus River flowed between the Pir Patho and Ibn Shah hills, and its delta begins a few miles from Ibn Shah.

The Kalhoras built many cities in Sindh but they became the sight of the river. The city of Hyderabad was settled in 1768. By this time, the river had begun to flow permanently west of Ganju Tucker in its new course. A few miles before Hyderabad, another tributary of the river passed east of Hyderabad and is known as Pahli. In the seventeenth century, the upper point of this delta was probably the left branch, about twenty miles southeast of present-day Hyderabad, known as the Rain River. It ran through Badin via the Goni Canal and fell into the sea at the western end of the run. The famous canals Kalri, Baghar, Panyari and Sutu were the tributaries of the Indus at different times in the past. The excess water of the Indus River used to reach the sea.

After 1819, the flow of the Indus did not change much. Although locally the river has been moving four or five miles to the right or left. Which has been affecting areas for a short distance. However, the changes that took place in the last half-century were the result of human efforts.


Arab geographers say that Debal was a port and settled on the shores of a salt marsh. The largest tributary of the Indus falls here. According to al-Masudi, the Indus was divided into two branches and fell into the sea, and the two branches were located at a great distance from each other. One near the mouth of the town of Lohrani and the other near the border of Kuchh. Where it was known as the Indus Sea.

Al-Biruni writes that the coast of India starts from the main city of Makran, Tez. Between this city and Debal is the Gulf of Turan (Sun Miani). After the bay comes the small mouth, then the big mouth. Passing through them comes Borage and the run comes to Somnath through some pirates. It is clear that the western branch of the Indus was smaller and the eastern branch was larger than the other branch. He says it divides into two parts near Mansura and enters the sea through two routes. One is near the town of Lohani and the other is further east, near the Indus Sea in the province of Kutch.

In the middle of the fourteenth century, the western branch of the Indus River was divided into two parts which were far apart from each other. The right side of it would have flowed north of the Mukli Hills along the existing Kalri Canal and had taken the route of the Baghar Canal. In time, the two parts merged to form one branch. Between the two was an island that covered an area of ​​about one hundred square miles and contained a whole range of hills. The fort of Talukabad, Samoi and later Thatta have been built here. The Kalri branch of the Indus River remained a part of the water system for two hundred years and until 1519 the water of the Indus River used to pass through this route.

In the middle of the eighteenth century, the Kalri branch became extinct as a result of changes in the course of the Indus. Shortly afterwards, the Baghar branch, through which most of the river water flowed, was filled with sand and caterpillars, and with the excess of the spring it took a southward course, cutting off many of the branches that came out on the left bank of the Baghar. The wind was blowing. It is not clear how this change in the water situation occurred. Probably a factor as to why they’re doing so poorly. Many changes had taken place in its vicinity. Corey Creek which was the site of the fall of Pran and Hakar and had been without water for a long time. But the quake made it much deeper and wider, and the western part of Run Kuch became such that more sea water began to reach it than before. When the river Indus falls into the sea, it splits into many branches and spreads into the sea. Delta is actually the process by which a river acquires land from the sea and the branches of a river indicate this process.

By spreading its soil, the river has raised the sea level and pushed the sea backwards. Therefore, the entire field of Sindh has come into being through this process. The appearance of the Indus River Delta begins when the sea water slows down the flow of the river and due to which the river divides into two branches in the coastal area. Keep in mind that the effect of this slow motion cannot be more than a hundred miles long branches. Like the plains, the Indus Delta continues to elevate its corridors. That is, it spreads its soil over the edges in the final stage, and this process continues at a considerable rate. This process continues not only during floods but also during normal weather.

Therefore, regarding the delta’s creative advancement, it would be wrong to assume that the sea in front of the mouth of the river is moving a little bit in every direction. The real situation is that the earth is advancing rapidly in front of the main entrance. While in the branches it is equal to no progress. Also, as much as there is a coastal part and of course most of it is the same part. It settles in place or penetrates a little underground locally. The river then uses another stream to spew out its soil. This change of mouth changes the place of advancement.


Creation of new lands
The creative process of river deltas is watched with interest and attention. The maximum discharge during the flood season in the Indus River is 400,000 cubic feet per second per year. The proportion of soil found in this water during floods is one hundred and two hundred cents. According to an estimate, in one hundred days of the Indus flood, about 119 million cubic yards of soil is carried to the sea. This amount is enough for thirty-eight square feet of land. Provided it is one yard deep. But the reaction of the Arabian Sea, which greatly moderates the formation of the delta during the monsoon. A ten-year survey has shown that the river can rise up to a mile in this period, but the increase in the number of tributaries of the river does not mean that it will increase.

There is evidence that in a relatively short period of time, land has occupied a significant part of the ocean. For example, we know that between 1873 and 1904, a new area of ​​97 square miles at the mouth of the Indus River was added to the land, and the main part of this increase is the central area opposite the sea. Here the branches of the river now fall into the sea from which most of the river water is discharged. The new land between Gharo and Corey Creek extends significantly beyond the coastal semicircle of the Delta. The waves of the ocean that constantly hit the land certainly help to make the soft soil of the river hard and strong. Here the question arises as to how fast the plain of Sindh as a whole has been rising from the action of the river Indus.

The area of ​​the Indus River plain is at least 20,000 square miles from the confluence of five rivers in Mithankot to the end, including the delta. The Indus Delta is much smaller than the Nile. The soil found in the waters of the Indus River is three times more sinful than the soil of the Nile River. Thus, the flood discharge of the Nile is one-third higher than that of Sindh. Therefore, the plain of Sindh which is made of river soil is double. The Indus Delta has been rising seven inches every century. Excavations at Mohenjo-daro have yielded very useful information, and it is now speculated that the central part of the plain, in which the Indus has been flowing for the last five thousand years, has risen about thirty feet. That is, it has risen an average of seven inches each century. It is also estimated that in the area adjacent to the river where it has been flowing continuously for almost a hundred years, this hundred-year-old height is about one foot. At a distance from the river, this average will gradually decrease.

Even at a distance of ten miles in the sea, the water of the Indus River changes color due to the reddish brown water of the Arabian Sea. Immediately after the walls of coastal sand under the water, a ditch called the swatch runs along the river for about fifty miles to the end of the continental shelf. On either side of it is a shallow sea that is only 100 feet deep at the beginning and gradually deepens. The bottom of the switch is about 2000 feet down. It may have been caused by an earthquake. But earthquakes also occur in the adjacent Himalayan regions. No such effect was seen there. This switch has a unique status on this beach. The Indus River, which has cut through the great mountains of the world, has dug a deep ravine at the bottom of the sea.


The Indus River, which starts at Sangi Kebab in Tibet, reaches the Arabian Sea by taking water from other rivers and streams through the high mountains of Tibet, the Karakoram Mountains. It also produces the goods of life and causes death to those who come in its way. It paralyzed not only cities but also civilizations. This is why he is sometimes called the sea, sometimes the god, sometimes the Adrol Lal and sometimes the father of the rivers. He has kept many secrets in his chest for centuries. Even when it reaches the sea, its rebellion does not end. It snatches the land from the sea with its brought soil and plows the sea and making its way in the sea and finally settles in it.

The journey of the Indus River which he started from Sangi Kebab in Tibet and ended in the waters of the Arabian Peninsula after a journey of eighteen hundred miles has been going on for centuries and has been going on for centuries and it is doing its job well. It is leading to the survival of people’s lives

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